2686 – 2134 BC), such that, since Egypt's last period of significant rainfall ended between the late fourth and early 3rd millennium BC, Schoch further notes the same heavy precipitation-induced weathering as seen on the walls of the Sphinx enclosure is also found on the core blocks of the Sphinx and Valley Temples, both known to have been originally constructed from blocks taken from the Sphinx enclosure when the body was carved.Though the presence of extensive 4th Dynasty repair work to the Sphinx and associated temples is acknowledged by such Egyptologists as Lehner and Hawass, Schoch contends: "Therefore if the granite facing is covering deeply weathered limestone, the original limestone structures must predate by a considerable degree the granite facing.The Sphinx has the head of a man in Egyptian headdress sporting a spiraling beard, a feature found on many likenesses of pharaohs.It has the body of a lion, with two paws resting beneath the head and chest, and it rises 66 feet high; the leonine body at rest behind stretches for 240 feet.The akhet is an Egyptian hieroglyph in the image of two triangles, both open at the base, connected by a line, which represents where the sun rises and sets—an image that comes to life when looking out from the Sphinx to the pyramids of Cheops and Cephren at sunset on the summer solstice.As the Sun sets between the pyramids, it highlights the image of two triangles (the pyramids) connected by a line (the earth).Ancient and historical records indicate that its body has been totally covered for long periods of time.
Similarly, David Coxill, a geologist working independently of both Schoch and Reader, has concluded from the evidence of weathering in the enclosure that "[t]he Sphinx is at least 5,000 years old and pre-dates dynastic times [before 3100 BC]." Zahi Hawass, former Egyptian minister of state for antiquities affairs and secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, was asked in an interview on the PBS series NOVA if it was possible that a more ancient civilization might have sculpted the Sphinx.
When first excavated, it had a partially eroded hieroglyphic phrase near the bottom which included a syllable in the name Khafre. " The Sphinx stela shows, in line thirteen, the cartouche of Khephren. Modern Egyptology text books link the construction of the Sphinx to the 4th dynasty Pharaoh Khafre.
I believe that to indicate an excavation carried out by that prince, following which, the almost certain proof that the Sphinx was already buried in sand by the time of Khafre and his predecessors." - Gaston Maspero - surveyed the Sphinx in the 1920's Carbon 14 dating analysis on a single mortar sample from between two blocks in the Sphinx Temple produced two different dates from two different laboratories: one of 2086 B. Alternate theories continue to be put forth, mostly from outside academic Egyptology or Archaeology.
he Sphinx at Giza faces due east and is referred to in some Egyptian hieroglyphics as Hamachis, the god of the rising Sun.
Later, Hamachis evolved into the name Hor-em-Akhet.